Kyrgyzstan | Green Growth Knowledge Platform
Kyrgyzstan does not have a significant fishing industry. In the post-Soviet era, mining has been an increasingly important economic activity. The Kumtor Gold Mine , which opened in , is based on one of the largest gold deposits in the world. New gold mines are planned at Jerooy and Taldy—Bulak, and a major gold discovery was announced at Tokhtonysay in late The state agency Kyrgyzaltyn owns all mines, many of which are operated as joint ventures with foreign companies. Uranium and antimony, important mineral outputs of the Soviet era, no longer are produced in significant amounts.
Although between and coal output dropped from about 2. A particular target of this policy is the Kara—Keche deposit in northern Kyrgyzstan, whose annual output capability is estimated at between , and 1 million tons. The small domestic output of oil and natural gas does not meet national needs.
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The sector has not recovered appreciably from that reduction; if gold production is not counted, in industry contributed only 14 percent of the gross domestic product GDP. Government support is moving away from the machine industries, which were a major contributor to the Soviet economy, toward clothing and textiles.
Food processing accounted for 10 to 15 percent of industrial production until encountering a slump in In recent years, the glass industry has surpassed clothing and textiles in investment received and as a contributor to GDP. In the early s, the construction industry has grown steadily because of large infrastructure projects such as highways and new gold mines. Housing construction, however, has lagged because of low investment. More than ninety percent of electricity produced is hydroelectric and the country could produce much more of such clean energy and export to its neighbors and the region.
Even though Kyrgyzstan has abundant hydro resources, only less than ten percent of its potential has been developed so far. It has limited deposits of fossil fuels and most of its natural gas imports come from Uzbekistan, with which Kyrgyzstan has had a series of imperfect barter agreements.
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Per capita energy consumption is high considering average income, and the government has no comprehensive plan to reduce demand. Up to 45 percent of electricity generated, especially in winter time, is diverted illegally or leaks from the distribution system. Hydroelectric plants generate some Because of its rich supply of hydroelectric power, Kyrgyzstan sends electricity to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in return for fossil fuels. The plant was completed in August 30, An antiquated infrastructure and poor management make Kyrgyzstan more dependent on foreign energy in winter when water levels are low.
In the early s, Kyrgyzstan was exploiting only an estimated 10 percent of its hydroelectric power potential. In Kyrgyzstan had about 70, kilometers of power transmission lines served by about substations. Other members would be China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security , convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.
Substantial post-Soviet growth in the services sector is mainly attributable to the appearance of small private enterprises. The central bank is the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic, which nominally is independent but follows government policy. Although the banking system has been reformed several times since , it does not play a significant role in investment. High interest rates have discouraged borrowing. A stock market opened in , but its main function is trading in government securities. In the early s, an average of about , tourists visited annually, mainly from countries of the former Soviet Union.
Kyrgyzstan's principal exports, which go overwhelmingly to other CIS countries, are nonferrous metals and minerals, woolen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy, and certain engineering goods. In turn, the Republic relies on other former Soviet states for petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals , chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods, and most construction materials.
In , Kyrgyz exports to the U. Kyrgyzstan exports antimony, mercury , rare-earth metals, and other chemical products to the U. Reexport of China-made consumer goods to Kazakhstan and Russia, centered on Dordoy Bazaar in Bishkek, and to Uzbekistan , centered on Kara-Suu Bazaar in Osh Region , is particularly important; it is thought by some economists to be one the country's two largest economic activities. The Kyrgyzstan Government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies, and introduced a value added tax.
Overall, the government appears committed to transferring to a free market economic system by stabilizing the economy and implementing reforms, which will encourage long-term growth. Collected taxes reached Rotar, Interview with A.
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Nezavisimaya Gazeta , 15 July , p. The IMU is a terrorist organization infamous for a series of terrorist attacks and raids in Central Asia and implicated in ties with the Taliban and Al Qaeda networks. Gorodetsky, ed. The restructuring of the multi-million-dollar debt of Kyrgyzstan to Russia has been a top priority of Kyrgyzstan's leadership. According to the estimates of the Central Asian analysts, Gazprom, Russia's state-controlled natural gas monopoly, owns 90 percent of the petroleum-product market in Kyrgyzstan B. Ellen Margrethe Lei.
Curtis, ed. According to Kyrgyzstan's Constitutions of , international treaties and agreements adopted by the Kyrgyz government in accordance with the established procedure become a part of Kyrgyzstan's legislation.
Akaev; I. OpenDocument accessed 5 July Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere.
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In , the population was 4,,; in , 4,,; in , 5,,; and in , 5,, Data for the Frunze special secondary school and Osh Technical University was not available. Key legislation and policy include the Law On Education and its amendments in , , , etc. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work's Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material.
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Introduction Kyrgyzstan is a small, mountainous, landlocked, and relatively poor country in Central Asia. During the mid-Soviet period, due to large-scale campaigns for basic education which accompanied a process of rapid industrialization across the country, the literacy rate in the society jumped from By , the country had 12 institutions of higher education, each of which served a different function within the educational system Fig 9. Open image in new window. There was no duplication of programs offered by each institution, although teachers with similar specializations were distributed throughout all regions.
The state built HEI each with a specialized, profile-appropriate campus; for example, the Medical Institute had a study campus and anatomy building, the Polytechnic Institute had state-of-the-art technical labs, and so on. However, financial resources were not distributed evenly across the sector, and HEIs were geographically stratified such that central institutions located in Frunze now the capital city of Bishkek were more likely to obtain funding from the Central Committee of the Communist Party than regional institutions with small student populations and lower-priority profiles.
Table 9. Student numbers were set by the State Planning Committee Gosplan , which determined the demand for particular specializations in the national economy. All levels of education were state-funded, public and free of charge, and while enrollment was competitive it increased rapidly between and and then steadily until Orusbaeva ; NSC b ; see Fig. By the early s, 58, students were studying across all HEIs in Kyrgyzstan— students per 10, citizens. As most of the institutions were located in Frunze, this urban center became the primary destination for higher education provision and many young people moved to the capital from rural locations across the country to obtain their qualifications.
The new legal, financial and ideological frameworks for HE policy created conditions for a rapid diversification and expansion of the system, which grew from 12 HEIs in to 52 in although this number can fluctuate from year to year as new institutions are opened and closed. This was accomplished in a variety of ways, including the establishment of new institutions in all regions of the republic; the creation of new branches, departments, and educational centers with legal status in existing institutions; and the reorganization of vocational institutions technikums into higher education institutions that had a broader remit to offer market-oriented programs.
For example, in the s, the accounting vocational institute Frunzenskyi tecknicum sovetskoy torgovly changed its status to become the Bishkek High Commerce College , then the Institute of Bishkek State University of Economics and Business , the Bishkek State Institute of Economics and Commerce , and the Kyrgyz Economic University see Table 9. Today, the Kyrgyz state classifies its 52 higher education institutions into four categories based on their teaching and research profiles.
Academies are educational institutions that offer training programs and conduct fundamental and applied scientific research public, 6; private, 5. Universities are multi-profile institutions which provide a wide range of specialist training at all levels of higher education including academic and in-service training and which conduct fundamental and applied scientific research public, 19; private, 7. Institutes may be either independent or units in universities carrying out higher education training for specialists and in-service training programs at all levels public, 4; private, 6.
In this chapter, we offer a slightly more nuanced typology, focusing on processes of differentiation and diversification, which makes visible the impact of the emergence of new private and international HEIs see Table 9. In , however, more students began dropping out from universities due to the cost of tuition, and enrollments in vocational institutions—which charge lower fees, are more directly linked to employment, and offer shorter training periods—significantly increased Fig.
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The National Scholarship Test for University Admission The higher education landscape in Kyrgyzstan has also been reshaped by the introduction of a National Scholarship Test, which is administered by a national testing center that is independent from both the MoES and individual HEIs. Various study formats—full-time, part-time, and evening classes—attract different types of students Fig. This form of educational commodification has been intensified as universities seek new means of financial survival in the absence of adequate state funding Morgan et al.
In contrast to the internally differentiated Soviet system of universities in which each institution served a particular function in relation to the others, many HEIs now thus offer a range of similar programs with minor modifications.
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